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Technology - succession of the operations

a) Roughing

Roughing is done with abrasive tools of graininess number 40 to 80. For roughing it is convenient to use only a firm tool which is a grinder or a strip with a firm pad wheel. Roughing is used for components made of grey cast iron, founded steell, forgings, mouldings, weldments from harsh metals etc. During the roughing the tool is not usually lubricated.

b) Smoothing

Smoothing is the first operation during the forming of metal components rolled in coolness. Smoothing is used for casts founded to ingot-moulds and other objects of midle dispartities. We can grind with a grinder of graininess number 100 to 150. Hard materials (steels) are grind with tools lubricated with abrasive pastes.

c) Soft smoothing

Soft smoothing with tools of graininess number 200 to 240 is used for grinding of components of steel used for galvanization. It is necessary to have a bath with good compensatory effects and good polishness of the metal applied. It is recommended to use brushing before metallization. Soft smoothing can be the last operation before polishing for small components made of aluminium, copper or zinc. Tools used for soft smoothing should be lubricated with a greasy paste (tallowy).

d) Pre-polishing

Pre-polishing with tools of graininess number 280 to 320 is the last operation under normal covers of nickel, brass, silver etc. Components made of steel are usually brushed before metalization. For non-ferrous metals pre-polishing is the last operation before polishing. Tools used for pre-polishing are lubricated with a greasy paste (tallowy).

e) Soft pre-polishing

Soft pre-polishing is the last operation of grinding and we use tools with graininess number 400 to 500 for it. Tools for soft pre-polishing are always lubricated with a greasy paste. For soft pre-polishing with tools without an abrasive layer cloth wheels are lubricated with abrasive pastes number 320 or 240 or with abrasive suspensions. Soft pre-polishing is the last operation before polishing stainless and other alloy steels. It can also be a final operation for forming of other materials metal and non-metal.

f) Brushing

Brushing with rotary wheels made of natural (sisal) fibres lubricated with abrasive pastes is mostly exclusively operation, which is used for forming of components intended for galvanization. Brushing chiefly consolidates surfaces of components with complicated shapes and eliminates oxides produced during the brushing. For some materials or shaped components brushing can be suitable process before the next polishing (eg. aluminium, stainless steel etc.).

g) Polishing

Polishing is used for forming of basic materials or covers. During galvanization the basic material is not polished, bud polishing is an interoperation, which forms separate layers. Polishing is also used for forming of covers which are defective or covers made of other materials (eg. painting substances). Polishing usually consists of two operations. During the first polishing we use wheels lubricated with a greasy paste with rougher polishing tools. The second polishing is done with drier and soft pastes, thanks to which we can achieve brilliant brightness.



For an achievement of good results during each operation it is necessary to know three main conditions:

  1. kind of the wheel - its suitability for the operation
  2. kind of the abrasive or polishing paste
  3. circumferential speed of the wheel and pressure


Material Polishing to
product cover I. degree II. and III. degrees
Low steel   38 - 46 26 - 30
Hard steel   40 - 48 26 - 30
Alloy steel   40 - 48 26 - 28
Nickel Nickel 38 - 48 26 - 28
Bronze   38 - 48 26 - 28
Copper Copper 32 - 36 26
Brass Brass 32 - 36 26 - 28
Aluminium   36 16 - 24
Light alloys   32 - 40 16 - 22
Zinc Zinc 30 - 38 18 - 22
Precious metals Gold, silver 20 - 24 16 - 18
  Chromium 38 - 48 26 - 28



  1. retex
  2. technical fabric
  3. carding molino
  4. flannel
  5. calico variegated
  6. silk
  7. brunok
  8. twill
  9. rekotex
  10. erna


Recomended variants of combinations of polishers and abrasive pastes:

polished material material of the polisher polishing paste
steel 7, 8 green II
stainless 7, 1, 2 green I
bronze 8, 9, 1, 2 tripl
aluminium 8, 7, 2, 4, 6 tripl
chromium 4 green IV
nickel 5, 2, 4 IM, green I a IV
copper 5, 2 IM, green I
brass 9, 5, 2, 10 IM, green I
zinc 2, 4, 3, 6 tripl
gold 9, 4, 6 polishing red
silver 9, 4, 6 polishing red
plasty 6